Invitations have been sent out and registration is now open for SAFECON 2017 which is to be held May 9-14, 2017 in Columbus, OH. Check out the SAFECON 2017 menu item at the top right of the site. The SAFECON 2017 event page has all the details concerning where and when. Chief Judge Communications is […]
NIFA Members now have the ability to score their navigation event practice using the same process found at the National and Regional competitions. You can do so by visiting: https://scoring.nifa.aero/nav-practice. If you are not logged into the nifa.aero site, you will be asked for your membership credentials. Please read the attached guide (Navigation Scoring Guide) for information […]
The General Aviation Manufacturers Association (GAMA) is accepting applications for the 2017 Harold S. Wood Award for Excellence. http://gama.aero/media-center/press-releases/content/gama-accepting-scholarship-applications-high-school-and-college-
Tests administered at the 2016 NIFA Regional competitions have been added to the test archive.
There are three NIFA Council Member-At-Large positions whose terms expire on June 30, 2017. As such, this notice is to advise you that an “Open Nomination Period” is effective January 03, 2017. You can find the NIFA Council Member-At-Large “Eligibility Requirements” in NIFA Bylaw 2 #13.1. You can find the NIFA Council Member-At-Large “Responsibilities” in […]
2016 Region II SAFECON, held 14-19 November 2016 at Reid-Hillview Airport, in San Jose, California, hosted by San Jose State University. Chief Judge Virginia Harmer. 2016 Region II SAFECON Official Results
Bidding to host SAFECON 2018 officially closed on Tuesday, November 15, 2017. There were three bidders – The Ohio State University, Indiana State University, and Laramie County Community College. All three will be afforded the opportunity to make presentations at NIFA’s Annual Business Meeting on Sunday, May 14, 2017 in Hangar 7 at KOSU in […]
2016 Region X SAFECON, held 2-5 November 2016 at Franklin Municipal-John Beverly Rose Airport, in Franklin, Virginia, hosted by Liberty University. Chief Judge Ernie Rogers. 2016 Region X SAFECON Official Results
2016 Region IX SAFECON, held 1-5 November 2016 at Daytona Beach International Airport in Daytona Beach Florida, hosted by Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University. Chief Judge Mark Misunas. 2016 Region IX SAFECON Official Results
2016 Region IV SAFECON, held 25-29 October 2016 at Skylark Field Airport in Killeen, Texas, hosted by Central Texas College. Chief Judge Brian Hart. 2016 Region IV SAFECON Official Results
2016 Region VIII SAFECON, held 24-29 October 2016 at the Terre Haute International Airport in Terre Haute, Indiana, hosted by the Indiana State University. Chief Judge Mike Carroll. 2016 Region VIII SAFECON Official Results
2016 Region VI SAFECON, held 15-21 October 2016 at the University of Oklahoma Westheimer Airport in Norman, Oklahoma, hosted by the University of Oklahoma. Chief Judge Eric Barton. 2016 Region VI SAFECON Official Results
2016 Region VII SAFECON, held 13-17 October 2016 at Schenectady County Airport in Schenectady, New York, hosted by the Schenectady County Community College. Chief Judge Sean Breen. 2016 Region VII SAFECON Official Results
2016 Region III SAFECON, held 9-14 October 2016 at Wood County Airport in Bowling Green, Ohio, hosted by Bowling Green State University. Chief Judge Ben Brierly. 2016 Region III SAFECON Official Results
2016 Region V SAFECON, held 4-7 Oct 2016 at Mankato Regional Airport in Mankato, Minnesota, hosted by the University of Minnesota – Mankato. Chief Judge David Edmonds. 2016 Region V SAFECON Official Results
2016 Region I SAFECON, held 2-6 October 2016, at the Logan-Cache Airport in Logan, Utah, hosted by Utah State University. Chief Judge Erich Hess. Congratulations to everyone and thank you for a great competition! 2016 Region I SAFECON Official Results
Our thanks goes out to Elizabeth and Steven Berke who recently made a donation to NIFA in honor of Howard Cooper.
The SAFECON 2016 recap video has been published. Thank you to all for participating and special thanks to Lisa Ross and her son for the video and photo production throughout the week.
We wish every student the best and hope they can smoothly transition to other programs. http://college.usatoday.com/2016/06/01/dowling-college-in-new-york-to-shutter-its-doors-on-friday/
Bidding to host SAFECON 2018 is now open closed. Please see https://nifa.aero/bidding-to-host-safecon-2018-closed for more information. In addition to this posting, emails have been sent to the NIFA points-of-contact at all NIFA Member Schools and to all NIFA Council Member Regional Representatives. A bid can be submitted to the NIFA Executive Director electronically in the form […]
SAFECON 2016, held 9 – 14 May 2016 at The Ohio State University Airport, hosted by The Ohio State University. Chief Judge Josh Ganshert, Associate Chief Judge Ryan Perrin, Senior Chief Judge Erich Hess.
Full SAFECON 2016 results can be found here: SAFECON 2016 Results And, have been posted to the: Competition Archives Thank you again and congratulations to everyone for a great week. Safe travels home. We’ll see you next year.
Preliminary results are posted here: Official 2016 SAFECON Preliminary Results Full and detailed results will be posted soon.
The Preflight aircraft will be available for viewing at the airport facilities hangar today until 1pm. Please enter from the land-side.
Flying events at SAFECON 2016 are complete. Thank you to everyone who made the week a success. Captain’s meeting will be held at 10am followed by the NIFA business meeting at 11am. *Advisors/Coaches need to meet with the Chief Judge @ 9:45am for an announcement regarding the NAV.
Round 3 will begin to depart hotbox at 5:15pm. Please have your ground crew ready to assist staging.
We have many no-shows for NAV planning, approx. 2hr 20 min behind. Plan accordingly! In order to finish tonight we need to have everyone be on top of their schedule. Please show up now for your planning!
Round 1 NAV contestants are currently in the planning process. New show time for planning will be 11:50 for NAV 23. Everyone else after NAV 23 moving forward will adjust show time based upon NAV 23 showing at 11:50. A decision will be made at a later time whether we continue with the third round.
The following deadlines apply for the following: Coach of the Year: TODAY at 12:00pm EDT. Access the form under the Chief Judge Communications page, under “Coach of the Year”. Red Baron: SATURDAY at 12:00EDT. Access the form under Chief Judge Communications page under “Red Baron Team Sportsmanship Award”. Outstanding Team Member: TODAY by 5:00pm. Access the form under Chief Judge Communications […]
NAV day today. Please reference the heat sheet for your check-in time at the planning room. It is your responsibility to be at the planning location on time. Locations for planning are the following: A route – Admin Building B route – Hangar 4 (enter walk-in gate between hangar 5 & 4) C route – Hangar […]
NAV day tomorrow. Judges show at 7:30am. Reference the heat sheet for your show time. Report directly to your planning room. See you then.
Round 3 will be the final round of message drop today. Please hang around for our sponsored event this evening starting around 5:45pm. Thanks for a great day!
Weather is holding, begin staging for Message Drop. We will start as soon as possible.
Preflight is available today at 1pm and 4:20pm today. Pickup for preflight will be in front of admin building.
Round 5 of short-field landings will continue after the power-off landing event. Message drop will continue immediately after landing event. Message drop barrels are located just north of target line near runway 27R, and northwest of the departure end of runway 27R. Thank you.
Judges show at 07:30 with contestants at 08:00 for briefing. Starting with round 4 of power-off landings. Weather permitting we finish landings and move immediately into message drop. See you then.
Judges report at 7:30am with contestant briefing at 8am. Plan is to complete rounds 4 & 5 for power-off, followed immediately by round 5 of short field landings. Weather permitting we will start message drop after landings. Nice work today, see you in the morning.
Average heat time for rounds 2 & 3 was over 1:20. Due to duty constraints we will stop landing after round 4. Advisors/Coaches meeting in hangar 7 @6pm. Nice work today!
Pickup for the Achievement Interviews is outside the Admin building. Interviews are being conducted in hangar 9.
Ceiling has improved, we will plan engine start @ 12:50pm. Heat 1 and 2 pilots report to the hotbox for briefing.
Low ceilings to blame for the continued hold. This would be an excellent opportunity to complete your CRM event. Available slots are 11:55am, 1:45pm, 3:35pm. Also a great opportunity to introduce yourselves to our sponsors. They are here for you, tell them “thank you” for supporting SAFECON 2016!
Teams and students are invited to tour NetJets global headquarters at 4151 Bridgeway Avenue at KCMH. 1200 and 1400 today (5/11) and tomorrow (5/12). Sign up at the NetJets booth in Hangar 7. Also, please call this number when getting close to the facility: 614 208 2106 Note: must provide your own transportation to the […]
The hold for Short Field landings is still in place. KOSU is still IFR, standby for another update. Thanks for the patience.
Briefing for Short Field landings is now 9am. Judges report at 8:30. Reduced visibility and passing rain showers will impact the event early on. The calendar events will run as scheduled on the calendar. Be flexible today, thank you.
The following CRM slots are available Wednesday. (tomorrow) 1005-1145 11:00-12:40 3:35-5:15 If you are interested, reference the CRM calendar. Thank you.
Calendar events will continue this afternoon as scheduled. Continue to change your appointment slots as flying events change throughout the week.
Weather is continuing to develop in the area, with more building southwest of KOSU. Therefore, we will suspend operations for the day. Thank you for a great day. Completing 3 rounds of power-off landings was great considering the weather forecast. The preliminary plan for 5/11/16 will be posted by 9pm this evening. We hope you enjoyed the ice […]
Weather is approaching from the southwest. Landings have been suspended. Heat 22 was holding short but did not fly. We will resume when able with heat 22. We strongly recommend to tie down your aircraft!
All taxiing aircraft should use proper wind handling procedures. Please recognize the wind, and apply the proper correction. Thank you.
Due to the schedule change today we are opening up some preflight slots today 5/10/16. If you would like to complete this today contact the Preflight judge Kaitlin Klingler 517-416-7218.
The message drop weigh and measure station is located in hangar 7. Check your dimensions before message drop day.
Landings have been stopped due to crosswinds. Last report 160-15kts. All advisors meet by podium in hangar 7 ASAP. Thank you.
Many CFI event slots are available today. 11:15, 2:15, 3:15 are still open. Contact Peg Ballou if you can fill in these slots. Thanks. Peg can be reached at 419-563-6899.
Today will be power-off landings. Please ensure your landing information has been entered into the system. Judges report 7:20am to the admin building, students report at 8:00am to hangar 7. Bring your rain gear, going to be soggy today. See you all there.
Show our NIFA SAFECON sponsors some love! NIFA announces a contest for the best selfie taken with a sponsor, as determined by the judges. Points given for creativity. The deadline will be noon on Friday (May 13) and the winner will be announced at the Friday Night Event. Note that not all sponsors attend all […]
With the change of flying events early in the week, please use your time wisely to complete sign-up events. (CRM, IFR, CFI, etc.) Check your calendars to view available swaps. Be proactive!
Due to rain showers and potential convective activity later in the day, plan power-off landings Tuesday. Confirmation will be posted by 6am tomorrow. Judges arrive at 7:20, students arrive for 8am briefing in hangar 7. See you then!
Please pickup your IFR SIM Packets at the conclusion of the SCAN test. Packets will be located in the ground testing room at the Embassy Suites.
The fuel manager will be available to process fuel requests after ground tests are finished this evening. Do not call the FBO directly for fueling. Thank you.
This is what the new electronic planning form looks like for the Navigation Event. It will be filled out by each contestant after they complete their planning. It is not part of the timed portion of Nav planning. The Route (A, B, or C) drop-down menu will expand to allow space to fill in ETE […]
Due to the location of Achievement Interviews, both event judges will be unable to access their sign-up calendar. If you need to make contact with the event judge, contact Carolyn Carpp at 425-941-3399. Thank you.
Judge School will be held @ 8am and the SAFECON 2016 General Contestant Briefing will be @ 10am at the Fawcett Event Center on the campus of The Ohio State University. See you all there!
Please, consider the following: Today is Mother’s Day. Remember to send something – flowers, call, text (in that order) to the special ones in your family. Tonight at 5pm at Embassy Suites there is a meeting for coaches new to SAFECON. We hope to answer any questions and help orient you for the week ahead. Immediately […]
Due to issues outside our control, the CRM event will now be held in the OSU Flight School SIM room. Please enter the building from the parking lot behind hangar 5. Thank you for your flexibility.
As a reminder NO NIFA landing practice will occur tomorrow Sunday May 8, 2016. Ground Trainer, CRM, and Preflight viewing will still occur throughout the day. New coaches and advisors are encouraged to join our “roundtable” discussion at 5pm at the Embassy Suites Dublin, Ohio. The SAFECON 2016 coach/advisor mandatory safety meeting will be held immediately following […]
In the interest of safety, the following link is available for schools planning to use alternate airports for practicing tomorrow. Please consider using this to alleviate possible congestion at the uncontrolled airports. Airport options include: KTZR, I74, KUYF, KMRT, KDLZ. The link can also be found on the Sign up Events Master Schedules page. Sunday 5/8 Alternate […]
For those schools interested, Signature Flight Support is offering hangar space at Port Columbus(KCMH). For a 12-hour period the rate is $100. If you stay overnight they have a 20% discount. Inquire with them: 614-238-3900
If you haven’t seen it yet, the refueling spot for aircraft during the Navigation Event is marked. It is near Hangar 8. Aircraft will line up on the spot facing east.
Reminder: The deadline for Men’s and Women’s Achievement applications is tomorrow! All applications must be in by Sunday May 8, 2016 @ 1800EDT. Visit NIFA.aero and click on Men’s and Women’s Achievement Awards Application.
The SAFECON 2016 preflight aircraft will be available for viewing today from 12-5pm on the SAFECON ramp in front of Hangar 3. In the event of bad weather, additional time will be added tomorrow May 8, 2016 to allow all schools adequate time to view the aircraft.
Update: The winds are variable between 320-020 with sustained winds around 10kts and gusts up to 19kts. The hold for landing practice continues. Once again the drawing for 5/7/16 AM slots will be 5pm in Hangar 7. Thank you.
Due to crosswinds, landing practice has been suspended until further notice. We will evaluate the winds on the top of each hour. Drawing for AM Landing Slots for 5/7/16 will take place in Hangar 7 @ 5pm.
Afternoon Landing slots will be drawn in Hangar 7 today at 10am. The late morning/afternoon practice may prove to be challenging with the winds from the north. NIFA will suspend landing practice if the crosswind exceeds 10kts. Check back on the website for additional weather updates. Thank you!
Ceiling and visibility have improved, however the crosswind limits for landings have now been exceeded. Drawing for AM Landing slots tomorrow 5/6/16 will be held at 5pm in Hangar 7.
The SAFECON 2016 Preflight C-172P (N308SU) will be available for viewing on Saturday May 7, and Sunday May 8th from 12pm-4pm. The aircraft will be located in front of Hangar 3. The preflight judge will be available for questions on Sunday May 8th.
KOSU is still IFR. Judges will make weather call on the top of each hour starting at 1pm. Thank you for your flexibility. Drawing for AM 5/6/16 slots will be at 5pm in Hangar 7.
AM practice will start as scheduled at 8am. Drawing for PM landing slots will be at 10am in Hangar 7. Priority will be given to schools who have just arrived.
Drawing for Thursday AM Landing positions will be this evening 5/4 in Hangar 7 @ 5pm. Preference will be given to schools who arrived today.
We ask all schools to please not loiter in the FBO. Tables and chairs will be set-up today in Hangar 7. Thank you for your cooperation.
Drawing for Landing slots will be @ 1000 in Hangar 7. All competitors must complete a tower briefing prior to flying in practice.
Attention SAFECON 2016 Judges: Judging assignments are now published in the Judges Corner. We are still in need of help Tuesday May 10th and Wednesday May 11th. Spread the word, and we hope to see you all next week!
Official SAFECON 2016 Landing practice will begin on Wednesday May 4, 2016 @ 0800. Drawing for slots will be held in Hangar 7 Tuesday May 3, 2016 @ 1700. Slots for Wednesday afternoon will be drawn @ 1000 on May 4th. Each competitor participating in the practice landings MUST have a tower briefing prior to flying, no exceptions! Any questions please contact the Chief Judge.
Please visit “Sign up Events Master Schedules” page to access the Tower Briefing sign-up. Reminder: All competitors MUST have a tower briefing prior to scheduling landing practice at KOSU. No exceptions!
Sunday May 8, 2016 (Mother’s Day) NO Landing practice will be held at KOSU. We understand due to Commencement activities not all senior competitors will have an opportunity to practice at KOSU. On a limited first come basis we plan to offer practice slots on Monday May 9, 2016 after the General Contestant Briefing. These slots will […]
Online Calendar Sign-ups will be Live in 60 minutes. Please reference the Event Sign-ups page for more information regarding the sign-up process. ALL calendars will open @ 1500EDT!
The moment you have all been waiting for…Heat Sheets! SAFECON 2016 Heat Sheets for both Landings/MSG DROP and Navigation can be found under Sign up Events Master Schedules. A huge thanks to Ryan Perrin for his exceptional work in preparing these solutions. I urge all schools to reference the sheets prior to booking calendar appointments. […]
Please reference the CRM/LOFT Event page for information on the event. You also have the ability to view a pre-briefing document. We urge all schools to view this information prior to competition.
Thank you to all schools who entered NAV Aircraft information on time! The NAV submission page is now closed. Check back soon for Landing, Message Drop, and NAV Heat Sheets. As a reminder the online calendars for Preflight, Ground Trainer, IFR Simulator, CRM/LOFT, Achievement Awards, AA Safety Award, CFI Event, & Loening Trophy will open Saturday […]
As a reminder all NAV Aircraft submissions are due Monday April 18, 2016 @ 1800EDT. As of today 18 schools have submitted NAV information, Thank You! Calendar appointments for Preflight, Ground Trainer, IFR Simulator, CRM/LOFT, Achievement Awards, AA Safety Award, CFI Event, & Loening Trophy will open Saturday April 23, 2016 @ 1500EDT. If any coach/advisor has […]
Daily O’Collegian – April 3, 2016 – The Oklahoma State University Flying Aggies held its second-annual fly-in fundraiser at the airstrip north of Stillwater. The fly-in was free for everyone, but there was Flying Aggies merchandise, tickets to see Stillwater from a plane and a $10 lunch. More than 30 planes were on the tarmac. […]
The submission form is now open for NAV Aircraft Information. Visit the NAV Event page for instructions and deadlines.
SAFECON 2016 CFI Event information is now available under the CFI Event page.
Attention all competitors: Please make yourself familiar with the arrival briefing for SAFECON 2016. A copy of this briefing MUST be in each competition aircraft during SAFECON. SAFECON 2016 GENERAL ARRIVAL BRIEFING
All NIFA Member Schools, Per Section 20.1 of the NIFA Bylaws, “It shall be the duty of the Executive Director to disseminate copies of any proposed amendments with any recommendations by the NIFA Council or Board of Directors to the paid member schools at least thirty days prior to the annual business meeting.” A copy […]
Popular Aviation magazine, May 1935: “A NATIONAL intercollegiate aviation association was organized at Washington, D. C., in December to put competitive flying activities between colleges in a class with football, baseball, and other major sports. Delegates from most of the leading universities were present.” [Read more…] https://books.google.com/books?id=Ji_ty9AEz58C&lpg=PP1&pg=PA307#v=onepage&q&f=false
AUBURN, Ala. – Auburn University’s War Eagle Flying Team has a chance to soar into history as they will compete on the national level this spring. The student based team placed third in the National Intercollegiate Flying Association Regional Championship this past October. Members of the War Eagle Flying Team spend every Sunday afternoon at […]
Registration for SAFECON 2016 is now open. The registration fee for competitors, coaches, and advisors includes admission to the week’s events and the Awards Banquet. Extra banquet tickets may be purchased for those attending only that event. Note that each person must register themselves but advisors or coaches may purchase the SAFECON Voucher for their students’ […]
The General Aviation Manufacturers Association (GAMA) has announced that applications are now being accepted for The Dr. Harold S. Wood Award for Excellence. Named after Wood, founder and past Executive Director of NIFA, the award comes with a $2,000 prize and an engraved propeller trophy. Applicants are judged on the basis of academic skills, aviation-related […]
All of the tests and answers for the 2015 Regional SAFECON season have been uploaded. They can be downloaded by clicking here or navigating to the Test Archives page on the website.
All 10 regions have now reported results from their regional competitions. Congratulations to all the teams for your efforts. http://nifa.aero/who1 The top three teams from each region will advance to SAFECON 2016, the exceptions being Region 5 which will advance the top two teams and Region 3 that advances four which includes the host school, […]
More 2015 competitions complete: Regions VI, VII, and IX
Regions I, IV, and X are in the books! Three more competitions begin this week. https://nifa.aero/who1
RAYMOND, MS (Mississippi News Now) – Five colleges from this region brought teams of ten to the National Intercollegiate Flying Association Region IV competition this week. Events will span two days and there’s little room for error. …. (Read more.) http://www.msnewsnow.com/story/30273738/students-test-skills-in-aviation-competition Have a story to share from a NIFA event? Let us know! Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Region 3 just completed their 2015 competition and the results are posted online. Look for all the results soon after the associated awards banquets throughout this season at Schools -> Competition Archives or http://nifa.aero/who1
To All NIFA Member Schools: There are two NIFA Council Member-At-Large Positions whose terms expire on June 30, 2016. As such, this notice is to advise you that an “Open Nomination Period” is effective immediately. 1. You can find the NIFA Council Member-At-Large “Eligibility Requirements” in NIFA Bylaw 3.13. 2. You can find the NIFA […]
NIFA Regionals competition season 2015 officially begins tomorrow in Region III with all others to follow soon after. We want to see your photos and hear your stories of competition! Tweet us, Instagram us, Facebook and email us. You’ll help contribute to NIFA’s collective history, and your work may just end up on nifa.aero. Remember […]
The 10th NIFA Golf Outing Fund Raiser was held at the Denison Golf Club at Granville, OH on Monday, September 14, 2015. The winning team was from The Ohio State University Professional Golf Program and scored a very respectable 15 under par. Second place went to The Ohio State University Flight Team No. 2 at 13 […]
Please note the change in venue from KOSH to KRYV for Region 5’s SAFECON in October: https://nifa.aero/event/region-5-safecon-2015/
The NIFA Council is accepting applications from individuals who may be interested in serving as Regional Representative of the schools from Region 4 for the rest of the current term, through 30 June 2017. Applications will be accepted through Monday 12 October 2015, 6pm Central (2300Z). Council Representative Application For more information on serving as […]
(Now Closed) NIFA Member Schools: Bidding to host SAFECON 2017 is now open. In addition to this posting, emails have been sent to the NIFA points-of-contact at all NIFA Member Schools and to all NIFA Council Member Regional Representatives. A bid can be submitted to the NIFA Executive Director electronically in the form of an […]
Proposed Amendments to the NIFA Bylaws 2.2, 2.4, 2.8, 2.11, 2.12, 11.5, 11.11 & 16 are below. The “Rationale” for each Amendment is included. These Amendments were discussed at each Regional Business Meeting last fall. They were also thoroughly reviewed by the NIFA Council Bylaws Committee and thoroughly reviewed and discussed by the entire NIFA […]
SAFECON 2015 Team registration for the National SAFECON competion is now open. The SAFECON 2015 event page has details, as well as links to the official event site and more. Each person can register themselves, or vouchers can be purchased that can be redeemed for someone else’s registration. Judges Committee The NIFA Judges Committee would […]
(Now closed) NIFA would like to announce that there are three NIFA Council Member-At-Large positions whose terms expire on June 30, 2015. As such, NIFA is notifying all interested parties that there is an open nomination period for these positions effective immediately. 1. NIFA Council Member-At-Large “Eligibility Requirements” can be found in NIFA Bylaw 2.14. […]
An associate membership in NIFA, for alumni, judges, parents, industry representatives, and spectators, is an important way that you can help NIFA sustain its mission to its member schools and students. NIFA is a non-profit dedicated to developing and advancing aviation education, safety in aviation, communications and cooperation between aviation students, educators, educational institutions and […]
With all the focus on regional competitions and SAFECON 2015, it is important to remember that bids to host SAFECON 2016 are still being accepted. (Bidding is now closed.) Hosting a SAFECON is an excellent opportunity for a school, building relationships with the airport and community (even if facilities requirements dictate they host the competition […]
The season for NIFA Regional SAFECON competitions is upon us. Before we know it, school will be back in session, practices will be in full swing, the air will cool a little, and teams will be gearing up to compete in their regional competition for a chance to attend Nationals next May. As always, NIFA […]
Welcome to the new nifa.aero Please, take a few minutes to orient yourself. We’ve made a few improvements. Have a thought about how to improve NIFA? Register for a free account and join the discussion in the forums. Want to support NIFA’s mission to the future aviation professionals from across the country? Become a sustaining […]